Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland announced sanctions against 43 high-ranking Venezuelan officials, including regional governors, and said they were implicated in the undermining of democratic institutions.
Canada had already sanctioned 70 other people linked to Maduro's government.
The sanctions include asset freezes and ban Canadians from any financial dealings with the targeted individuals.
In a statement, Maduro's government described the latest sanctions as a violation of international law and said they showed Canada is participating in "imperial aggression" against Venezuela.
Canada, the United States and about 50 other countries support Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaidó, who says he is the interim president and that Maduro must resign. Maduro says he is the target of a coup plot by the U.S., which has also imposed oil and other sanctions on Venezuelan entities and individuals.
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